I hope if you read this far in this four part series, that you enjoyed reading about one of the most enigmatic New World monkeys. Below is the list of works cited in the previous three parts, but I’m also going to include a few sources that are Internet accessible for those without quick access to the books and journal articles.
Google Image Results for “howler monkey”
Wikipedia Entry for howler monkey. This link includes some images including the one used to show schizodactyly.
The Loudest Animal In the World, an article by Terry Dunn hosted by the Smithsonian National Zoological Park website.
Carpenter, C. R. (1934). A Field Study of the Behavior and Social Relations of Howling Monkeys. New York: AMS Press.
Fleagle, J. G. (1999). Primate Adaptation and Evolution, 2nd Ed.. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Gilbert, K. A., & Stouffer, P. C. (1989). Use of a ground water source by mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Biotropica, 21(4), 380.
Kinzey, W. G. (1997). New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Kitchen, D. M. (2004, 19/03). Alpha male black howler monkey responses to loud calls: Effect of numeric odds, male companion behavior and reproductive investment. Animal Behavior, 67, 125-139.
Milton, K. (1980). The Foraging Strategy of Howler Monkeys: A Study in Primate Economics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Pinto. Liliam P., & Setz, E. Z. (2004, December). Diet of Alouatta belzebul discolor in an Amazonian rain forest of Northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology, 25(6), 1197-1211.
Regan, B. C., Julliot, C., Simmen, B., ViÃ©not, F., Charles-Dominique, P., & Mollon, J. (1998, November). Frugivory and colour vision in Alouatta seniculus, a trichromatic platyrrhine monkey. Vision Research, 38(21), 3321-3327.
Richard-Hansen, C., ViÃ©, J.-C., & de Thoisy, B. (2000). Trnaslocation of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in French Guiana. Biological Conservation, 93, 247-253.